دانلود کتاب Life: The Science of Biology, 9th Edition

عنوان فارسی :

دانلود کتاب زندگی: علم زیست شناسی، نسخه 9

عنوان انگلیسی :

Life: The Science of Biology, 9th Edition

زبان : English

موضوع : Biology

نویسندگان : David Sadava H. Craig Heller David M. Hillis May Berenbaum

ناشر : W. H. Freeman

ISBN (شابک) : 1429219629, 9781429219624

تعداد صفحات : 1393\1393

سال نشر : 2009     ویرایش : 9th

حجم : 130 MB       فرمت : pdf

قیمت : 4000 تومان

خلاصه کتاب به فارسی (ترجمه خودکار و سیستمی) و خارجی:
بخش بزرگ بعدی در داستان زندگی Livestock، سایت پیش نمایش 9e در www.whfreeman.com/life9epreview علم زیست شناسی تکامل می یابد. کلاس علمی و آزمایشگاه تکامل یافته است. در این نسخه، به عنوان همیشه، زندگی: علم زیست شناسی با آنها، در روش های نوآورانه، معتبر، و فریبنده با آنها در حال تکامل است. از اولین نسخه تا به امروز، زندگی استاندارد استاندارد را برای متعادل ترین متن مبتنی بر تجربی مبتنی بر زیست شناسی تعیین کرده است . زندگی همیشه چگونه نشان می دهد (فرآیند علم از طریق آزمایش) و همچنین آنچه ما می دانیم (واقعیت های حاصل از این آزمایش ها) ارائه شده است. نسخه جدید بر این میراث، دوباره آموزش مفاهیم اساسی و آخرین تحولات را با در نظر گرفتن دانش آموزان گام به گام از طریق تحقیق که آنها را نشان داد. برای دستیابی به این هدف، تمام نوآوری های نسخه نهم، نوشتن جدید، فصل جدید و مجدد سازمان، محتوای تجربی جدید، ویژگی های پیشرفته، هنر تجسم و ابزار رسانه های جدید، بر روی دادن دانش آموزان و مدرسین بهترین ابزار برای آوردن بهترین بیولوژیکی تحقیقات و برنامه های کاربردی در دوره های زیست شناسی رشته های مقدماتی. همچنین موجود است، تقسیم جلد: - کاغذ به رنگ کامل در جلد I: سلول و وجدان (فصل 1-20) جلد دوم: تکامل، تنوع و اکولوژی (فصل 1، 21-33 ، 54-59) دوره III: گیاهان و حیوانات (فصل ها 1، 34-53) یک زندگی سبز دیگر اولین بار، نسخه جدید زندگی به چاپ بر روی کاغذ کسب درآمد برچسب شورای جنگل (FSC)، استاندارد "طلا" در سبز محصولات کاغذی. مقاله زندگی شامل 10٪ زباله پیش از مصرف کنندگان، 10٪ دفع پس از مصرف کنندگان و از چوب از جنگل های پایدار مدیریت شده است. علاوه بر این، طرح های سبز زندگی عبارتند از: • 5٪ جوهر مبتنی بر سویا • پوشش های چاپ شده در سهام با 10 درصد دفع بعد از مصرف کنندگان • 100٪ پوشش کاغذی بازیافت شده • جریان دیجیتالی کار برای کاهش ضایعات کاغذی همه همچنین به ما سبد نسخه چاپی پیک شرکت برای کاهش اثرات زیست محیطی ما. صرفه جویی در محیط زیست ما تنها در چاپ نخست به دست آمده است: • تعداد درختان ذخیره شده: 469 • انتشار هوا حذف (GHG): 52،240 پوند • آب نجات: 171،250 گالن • زباله جامد حذف: 28،335 پوند

خلاصه کتاب به زبان اصلی :

THE NEXT GREAT CHAPTER IN THE STORY OF LIFEVisit the Life, 9e preview site at www.whfreeman.com/life9epreview The science of biology evolves. The science classroom and lab evolve. In this edition, as always, Life: The Science of Biology evolves with them, in innovative, authoritative, and captivating ways.From the first edition to the present, Life has set the standard for being the most balanced experimentally-based introductory biology text. Life has always presented how we know (the process of science through experiments) as well as what we know (facts derived from these experiments). The new edition builds on this legacy, again teaching fundamental concepts and the latest developments by taking students step by step through the research that revealed them. To achieve this, all of the Ninth Edition’s innovations—new authorship, new and reororganized chapters, new experimental content, enhanced features, reinvisioned art, and new media tools—are focused on giving students and instructors the best tools for bringing the best of biological research and applications into the introductory majors biology course.Also available, Volume Splits:—paperbound in full color!Volume I: The Cell and Heredity (Chapters 1-20)Volume II: Evolution, Diversity and Ecology (Chapters 1, 21-33, 54-59)Volume III: Plants and Animals (Chapters 1, 34-53)A GREENER LIFEAnother first, the new edition of Life is printed on paper earning the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) label, the “gold standard” in green paper products. Life paper includes 10% pre-consumer waste, 10% post-consumer waste, and is manufactured from wood from well-managed sustainable forests. Additionally, Life’s green initiatives include:• 5% soy based ink• Covers printed on stock with 10% post-consumer waste• 100% recycled paper coverboards• Digitized work flow to reduce paper wasteAll of which also earn us Courier Printing Company’s Green Edition designation for reducing our environmental footprint. The environmental savings we have achieved on the first printing alone are:• Number of trees saved: 469• Air emissions eliminated (GHG’s): 52,240 pounds• Water saved: 171,250 gallons• Solid waste eliminated: 28,335 pounds

فهرست :



Table of contents :
Cover Page......Page 1
Half-Title Page......Page 3
Title Page......Page 5
Copyright Page......Page 6
Dedication Page......Page 7
About Author Page......Page 8
Contents in Brief......Page 9
INVESTIGATING LIFE......Page 10
TOOLS FOR INVESTIGATING LIFE......Page 11
New Features......Page 12
The Ten Parts......Page 13
Media and Supplements for the Ninth Edition......Page 14
Many People to Thank......Page 15
Manuscript Reviewers......Page 16
Accuracy Reviewers......Page 17
featuring Prep-U......Page 19
Student Supplements......Page 20
Instructor Media & Supplements......Page 21
Contents......Page 23
CHAPTER 1: Studying Life......Page 48
Cells are the basic unit of life......Page 49
All of life shares a common evolutionary history......Page 51
Biological information is contained in a genetic language common to all organisms......Page 52
Living organisms regulate their internal environment......Page 53
Living organisms interact with one another......Page 54
1.2: How Is All Life on Earth Related?......Page 55
Photosynthesis changed the course of evolution......Page 56
Biologists can trace the evolutionary tree of life......Page 57
The tree of life is predictive......Page 58
Observation is an important skill......Page 59
Good experiments have the potential to falsify hypotheses......Page 60
Not all forms of inquiry are scientific......Page 61
1.4: How Does Biology InfluencePublic Policy?......Page 63
CHAPTER 2: Small Molecules and the Chemistry of Life 20......Page 66
An element consists of only one kind of atom......Page 67
Each element has a different number of protons......Page 68
The behavior of electrons determines chemical bonding and geometry......Page 69
Covalent bonds consist of shared pairs of electrons......Page 71
Ionic bonds form by electrical attraction......Page 74
Polar and nonpolar substances: Each interacts best with its own kind......Page 75
2.3: How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?......Page 76
Water has a unique structure and special properties......Page 77
Water is an excellent solvent—the medium of life......Page 78
Aqueous solutions may be acidic orbasic......Page 79
An Overview and a Preview......Page 81
CHAPTER 3: Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Lipids......Page 84
Functional groups give specific properties to biological molecules......Page 85
The structures of macromolecules reflect their functions......Page 86
Most macromolecules are formed by condensation and broken down by hydrolysis......Page 87
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins......Page 88
The primary structure of a protein is its amino acid sequence......Page 90
The tertiary structure of a protein is formed by bending and folding......Page 92
The quaternary structure of a proteinc onsists of subunits......Page 93
Environmental conditions affect protein structure......Page 94
3.3: What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?......Page 95
Glycosidic linkages bond monosaccharides......Page 96
Polysaccharides store energy and provide structural materials......Page 98
Chemically modified carbohydrates contain additional functional groups......Page 99
Fats and oils are hydrophobic......Page 100
Lipids have roles in energy conversion, regulation, and protection......Page 101
CHAPTER 4: Nucleic Acids and the Origin of Life......Page 106
Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids......Page 107
Base pairing occurs in both DNA and RNA......Page 108
DNA carries information and is expressed through RNA......Page 109
Nucleotides have other important roles......Page 110
Life began in water......Page 111
Life may have come from outside Earth......Page 112
Prebiotic synthesis experiments model the early Earth......Page 113
There are two theories for the emergence of nucleic acids, proteins, and complex chemistry......Page 115
RNA may have been the first biological catalyst......Page 117
Experiments describe the origin of cells......Page 118
Some ancient cells left a fossil imprint......Page 119
CHAPTER 5: Cells: The Working Units of Life......Page 122
Cell size is limited by the surface area to-volume ratio......Page 123
The plasma membrane forms the outer surface of every cell......Page 125
All cells are classified as either prokaryotic or eukaryotic......Page 126
Prokaryotic cells share certain features......Page 128
Specialized features are found in some prokaryotes......Page 129
Organelles can be studied by microscopy or isolated for chemical analysis......Page 130
The nucleus contains most of the genetic information......Page 131
The endomembrane system is a group of interrelated organelles......Page 135
Some organelles transform energy......Page 138
There are several other membrane enclosed organelles......Page 140
The cytoskeleton is important in cell structure and movement......Page 141
The extracellular matrix supports tissue functions in animals......Page 146
Some organelles arose by endosymbiosis......Page 147
CHAPTER 6: Cell Membranes......Page 151
Lipids form the hydrophobic core of the membrane......Page 152
Membrane proteins are asymmetrically distributed......Page 154
Membranes are constantly changing......Page 155
Plasma membrane carbohydrates are recognition sites......Page 156
Three types of cell junctions connect adjacent cells......Page 157
Cell membranes adhere to the extracellular matrix......Page 159
Diffusion is the process of random movement toward a state of equilibrium......Page 160
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across membranes......Page 161
Diffusion may be aided by channel proteins......Page 163
Carrier proteins aid diffusion by binding substances......Page 165
Active transport is directional......Page 166
Different energy sources distinguish different active transport systems......Page 167
6.5: How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?......Page 168
Receptor-mediated endocytosis is highly specific......Page 169
6.6: What Are Some Other Functions of Membranes?......Page 170
CHAPTER 7: Cell Signaling and Communication......Page 174
Cells receive signals from the physical environment and from other cells......Page 175
A signal transduction pathway involves a signal, a receptor, and responses......Page 176
Receptors have specific binding sites for their signals......Page 178
Receptors can be classified by location and function......Page 179
A protein kinase cascade amplifies a response to ligand binding......Page 182
Second messengers can stimulate protein kinase cascades......Page 183
Second messengers can be derived from lipids......Page 185
Nitric oxide can act in signal transduction......Page 186
Signal transduction is highly regulated......Page 187
Ion channels open in response to signals......Page 188
Enzyme activities change in response to signals......Page 189
Animal cells communicate by gap junctions......Page 190
Plant cells communicate by plasmodesmata......Page 191
CHAPTER 8: Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism......Page 194
There are two basic types of energy and of metabolism......Page 195
The second law of thermodynamics: Disorder tends to increase......Page 196
Chemical reactions release or consume energy......Page 198
8.2: What Is the Role of ATP in Biochemical Energetics?......Page 199
ATP hydrolysis releases energy......Page 200
ATP couples exergonic and endergonic reactions......Page 201
To speed up a reaction, an energy barrier must be overcome......Page 202
Enzymes lower the energy barrier but do not affect equilibrium......Page 203
Molecular structure determines enzyme function......Page 204
The substrate concentration affects the reaction rate......Page 206
Enzymes can be regulated by inhibitors......Page 207
Allosteric enzymes control their activity by changing shape......Page 208
Allosteric effects regulate metabolism......Page 209
Enzymes are affected by their environment......Page 210
CHAPTER 9: Pathways that Harvest Chemical Energy......Page 214
Cells trap free energy while metabolizing glucose......Page 215
Redox reactions transfer electrons and energy......Page 216
An overview: Harvesting energy from glucose......Page 217
9.2: What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Metabolism?......Page 218
Pyruvate oxidation links glycolysis and the citric acid cycle......Page 220
The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of glucose to CO2......Page 221
9.3: How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?......Page 223
Proton diffusion is coupled to ATP synthesis......Page 224
9.4: How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?......Page 227
The yield of ATP is reduced by the impermeability of some mitochondria to NADH......Page 229
Catabolism and anabolism are linked......Page 230
Metabolic pathways are regulated systems......Page 231
CHAPTER 10: Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight......Page 235
Experiments with isotopes show that in photosynthesis O2 comes from H2O......Page 236
Photosynthesis involves two pathways......Page 237
Molecules become excited when they absorb photons......Page 238
Absorbed wavelengths correlate with biological activity......Page 239
Light absorption results in photochemical change......Page 240
Reduction leads to electron transport......Page 241
Noncyclic electron transport produces ATP and NADPH......Page 242
Chemiosmosis is the source of the ATP produced in photophosphorylation......Page 243
Radioisotope labeling experiments revealed the steps of the Calvin cycle......Page 245
The Calvin cycle is made up of three processes......Page 246
Light stimulates the Calvin cycle......Page 247
Rubisco catalyzes the reaction of RuBP with O2 or CO2......Page 248
C3 plants undergo photorespiration but C4 plants do not......Page 249
10.5: How Does Photosynthesis Interact with Other Pathways?......Page 251
CHAPTER 11: The Cell Cycle and Cell Division......Page 255
Prokaryotes divide by binary fission......Page 256
Eukaryotic cells divide by mitosis or meiosis followed by cytokinesis......Page 257
11.2: How Is Eukaryotic Cell Division Controlled?......Page 258
Specific signals trigger events in the cell cycle......Page 259
Prior to mitosis, eukaryotic DNA is packed into very compact chromosomes......Page 261
The spindle begins to form during prophase......Page 262
Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm......Page 265
Sexual reproduction by meiosis results in genetic diversity......Page 267
The number, shapes, and sizes of the metaphase chromosomes constitute the karyotype......Page 269
11.5: What Happens during Meiosis?......Page 270
Meiotic division reduces the chromosome number......Page 271
During meiosis homologous chromosomes separate by independent assortment......Page 272
Meiotic errors lead to abnormal chromosome structures and numbers......Page 274
11.6: In a Living Organism, How Do Cells Die?......Page 275
Cancer cells differ from normal cells......Page 276
Cancer cells lose control over the cell cycle and apoptosis......Page 277
Cancer treatments target the cell cycle......Page 278
CHAPTER 12: Inheritance, Genes, and Chromosomes......Page 282
Mendel brought new methods to experiments on inheritance......Page 283
Mendel devised a careful research plan......Page 284
Mendel’s first experiments involved monohybrid crosses......Page 286
Alleles are different forms of a gene......Page 287
Mendel verified his hypothesis by performing a test cross......Page 288
Mendel’s second law says that copies of different genes assort independently......Page 290
Punnett squares or probability calculations: Achoice of methods......Page 291
Mendel’s laws can be observed in human pedigrees......Page 292
Many genes have multiple alleles......Page 294
In codominance, both alleles at a locus are expressed......Page 295
Hybrid vigor results from new gene combinations and interactions......Page 296
The environment affects gene action......Page 297
Most complex phenotypes are determined by multiple genes and the environment......Page 298
Genes can be exchanged between chromatids......Page 299
Geneticists can make maps of chromosomes......Page 301
Linkage is revealed by studies of the sex chromosomes......Page 302
Genes on sex chromosomes are inherited in special ways......Page 303
12.5: What Are the Effects of Genes Outside the Nucleus?......Page 305
Bacteria exchange genes by conjugation......Page 306
Plasmids transfer genes between bacteria......Page 307
CHAPTER 13: DNA and Its Rolein Heredity......Page 312
DNA from one type of bacterium genetically transforms another type......Page 313
Viral replication experiments confirmed that DNA is the genetic material......Page 315
Eukaryotic cells can also be genetically transformed by DNA......Page 316
The chemical composition of DNA was known......Page 318
Watson and Crick described the double helix......Page 319
Four key features define DNA structure......Page 320
The double-helical structure of DNA is essential to its function......Page 321
An elegant experiment demonstrated that DNA replication is semiconservative......Page 322
DNA polymerases add nucleotides to the growing chain......Page 325
Many other proteins assist with DNA polymerization......Page 326
Telomeres are not fully replicated and are prone to repair......Page 329
13.4: How Are Errors in DNA Repaired?......Page 331
The polymerase chain reaction makes multiple copies of DNA sequences......Page 332
CHAPTER 14: From DNA to Protein: Gene Expression......Page 336
Observations in humans led to theproposal that genes determine enzymes......Page 337
Experiments on bread mold established that genes determine enzymes......Page 338
RNA differs from DNA and plays a vital role in gene expression......Page 340
RNA viruses are exceptions to the central dogma......Page 341
Transcription occurs in three steps......Page 342
The information for protein synthesis lies in the genetic code......Page 344
Eukaryotic genes have noncoding sequences......Page 346
Eukaryotic gene transcripts are processed before translation......Page 348
Transfer RNAs carry specific amino acids and bind to specific codons......Page 350
Activating enzymes link the right tRNAs and amino acids......Page 351
Translation takes place in three steps......Page 352
Polysome formation increases the rate of protein synthesis......Page 354
Signal sequences in proteins direct them to their cellular destinations......Page 356
Many proteins are modified after translation......Page 358
CHAPTER 15: Gene Mutation and Molecular Medicine......Page 362
Mutations have different phenotypic effects......Page 363
Point mutations change single nucleotides......Page 364
Mutations can be spontaneous or induced......Page 366
Mutations have both benefits and costs......Page 368
Restriction enzymes cleave DNA at specific sequences......Page 369
Gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments......Page 370
DNA fingerprinting uses restriction analysis and electrophoresis......Page 371
The DNA barcode project aims to identify all organisms on Earth......Page 372
Genetic mutations may make proteins dysfunctional......Page 373
Prion diseases are disorders of protein conformation......Page 375
Genetic markers can point the way to important genes......Page 376
Expanding triplet repeats demonstrate the fragility of some human genes......Page 379
Screening for disease phenotypes involves analysis of proteins......Page 380
DNA testing is the most accurate way to detect abnormal genes......Page 381
Genetic diseases can be treated by modifying the phenotype......Page 383
Gene therapy offers the hope of specific treatments......Page 384
CHAPTER 16: Regulation of Gene Expression......Page 388
Bacteriophage undergo a lytic cycle......Page 389
Some bacteriophage can undergo a lysogenic cycle......Page 391
Eukaryotic viruses have complex regulatory mechanisms......Page 392
Regulating gene transcription conserves energy......Page 394
Operons are units of transcriptional regulation in prokaryotes......Page 395
Operator–repressor interactions control transcription in the lac and trp operons......Page 396
Protein synthesis can be controlled by increasing promoter efficiency......Page 397
16.3: How Is Eukaryotic Gene Transcription Regulated?......Page 398
Transcription factors act at eukaryotic promoters......Page 399
Specific protein–DNA interactions underlie binding......Page 400
The expression of sets of genes can be coordinately regulated by transcription factors......Page 401
DNA methylation occurs at promoters and silences transcription......Page 402
Histone protein modifications affect transcription......Page 403
DNA methylation can result in genomic imprinting......Page 404
Global chromosome changes involve DNA methylation......Page 405
Different mRNAs can be made from the same gene by alternative splicing......Page 406
Translation of mRNA can be regulated......Page 407
CHAPTER 17: Genomes......Page 411
Two approaches were used to sequence the human genome......Page 412
The nucleotide sequence of DNA can be determined......Page 414
High-throughput sequencing has been developed for large genomes......Page 415
Genome sequences yield several kinds of information......Page 416
The sequencing of prokaryotic genomes led to new genomics disciplines......Page 417
Some sequences of DNA can move about the genome......Page 418
Metagenomics allows us to describe new organisms and ecosystems......Page 419
Will defining the genes required for cellular life lead to artificial life?......Page 420
Model organisms reveal many characteristics of eukaryotic genomes......Page 421
Eukaryotes have gene families......Page 423
Eukaryotic genomes contain many repetitive sequences......Page 424
The human genome sequence held some surprises......Page 426
Human genomics has potential benefits in medicine......Page 427
The proteome is more complex than the genome......Page 428
Metabolomics is the study of chemical phenotype......Page 429
CHAPTER 18: Recombinent DNA and Biotechnology......Page 432
18.1: What Is Recombinant DNA?......Page 433
Recombinant DNA enters host cells in a variety of ways......Page 435
Reporter genes identify host cells containing recombinant DNA......Page 436
cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA transcripts......Page 438
Genes can be inactivated by homologous recombination......Page 439
Complementary RNA can prevent the expression of specific genes......Page 440
DN A microarrays can reveal RNA expression patterns......Page 441
Expression vectors can turn cells into protein factories......Page 443
Medically useful proteins can be made by biotechnology......Page 444
DNA manipulation is changing agriculture......Page 446
There is public concern about biotechnology......Page 448
CHAPTER 19: Differential Gene Expression in Development......Page 451
Development involves distinct but overlapping processes......Page 452
Cell fates become progressively more restricted during development......Page 453
Plant cells can be totipotent......Page 454
Nuclear transfer allows the cloning of animals......Page 455
Multipotent stem cells differentiate in response to environmental signals......Page 456
Pluripotent stem cells can be obtained in two ways......Page 457
Differential gene transcription is a hallmark of cell differentiation......Page 458
Cytoplasmic segregation can determine polarity and cell fate......Page 459
Inducers passing from one cell to another can determine cell fates......Page 460
Multiple genes interact to determine developmental programmed cell death......Page 463
Plants have organ identity genes......Page 464
Morphogen gradients provide positional information......Page 465
A cascade of transcription factors establishes body segmentation in the fruitfly......Page 466
Hox genes encode transcription factors......Page 469
CHAPTER 20: Development and Evolutionary Change......Page 472
Developmental genes in distantly related organisms are similar......Page 473
Genetic switches govern how the genetic toolkit is used......Page 475
Modularity allows for differences in the timing and spatial pattern of gene expression......Page 476
20.3: How Can Differences among Species Evolve?......Page 478
Temperature can determine sex......Page 479
Organisms use information that predicts future conditions......Page 480
A variety of environmental signals influence development......Page 481
Conserved developmental genes canlead to parallel evolution......Page 482
CHAPTER 21: Evidence and Mechanisms of Evolution......Page 486
21.1: What Facts Form the Basis of Our Understanding of Evolution?......Page 487
Charles Darwin articulated the principle of natural selection......Page 488
Population genetics provides an under pinning for Darwin’s theory......Page 490
Most populations are genetically variable......Page 491
Evolutionary change can be measured by allele and genotype frequencies......Page 492
The genetic structure of a population changes over time, unless certain restrictive conditions exist......Page 493
Mutations generate genetic variation......Page 494
Genetic drift may cause large changes in small populations......Page 495
21.3: How Does Natural Selection Result in Evolution?......Page 497
Natural selection can change or stabilize populations......Page 498
Sexual selection influences reproductive success......Page 499
Sexual recombination amplifies the number of possible genotypes......Page 502
Much genetic variation in species is maintained in geographically distinct populations......Page 503
Trade-offs constrain evolution......Page 505
Short-term and long-term evolutionary outcomes sometimes differ......Page 506
CHAPTER 22: Reconstructing and Using Phylogenies......Page 510
22.1: What Is Phylogeny?......Page 511
All of life is connected through evolutionary history......Page 512
Comparisons among species require an evolutionary perspective......Page 513
22.2: How Are Phylogenetic Trees Constructed?......Page 514
Phylogenies are reconstructed from many sources of data......Page 516
The accuracy of phylogenetic methods can be tested......Page 517
Phylogenies help us reconstruct the past......Page 519
Phylogenies allow us to compare and contrast living organisms......Page 520
Molecular clocks help date evolutionary events......Page 521
22.4: How Does Phylogeny Relate to Classification?......Page 522
Evolutionary history is the basis for modern biological classification......Page 523
Several codes of biological nomenclature govern the use of scientific names......Page 524
CHAPTER 23: Species and Their Formation......Page 527
We can recognize many species by their appearance......Page 528
Species are reproductively isolated lineages on the tree of life......Page 529
Gene incompatibilities can produce reproductive isolation in two daughter species......Page 530
Geographic barriers give rise to allopatric speciation......Page 531
Sympatric speciation occurs without physical barriers......Page 532
Prezygotic barriers prevent fertilization......Page 535
Postzygotic barriers can isolate species after fertilization......Page 537
Hybrid zones may form if reproductive isolation is incomplete......Page 538
23.4: Why Do Rates of Speciation Vary?......Page 539
CHAPTER 24: Evolution of Genes and Genomes......Page 544
Evolution of genomes results in biological diversity......Page 545
Genes and proteins are compared through sequence alignment......Page 546
Models of sequence evolution are used to calculate evolutionary divergence......Page 547
Experimental studies examine molecular evolution directly......Page 548
24.2: What Do Genomes Reveal About Evolutionary Processes?......Page 551
Positive and purifying selection can be detected in the genome......Page 552
Genome size and organization also evolve......Page 553
Lateral gene transfer can result in the gain of new functions......Page 555
Most new functions arise following gene duplication......Page 556
Some gene families evolve through concerted evolution......Page 557
Molecular sequence data are used to determine the evolutionary history of genes......Page 558
Gene evolution is used to study protein function......Page 559
Molecular evolution is used to study and combat diseases......Page 560
CHAPTER 25: The History of Life on Earth......Page 564
25.1: How Do Scientists Date Ancient Events?......Page 565
Radioisotopes provide a way to daterocks......Page 566
25.2: How Have Earth’s Continents and Climates Changed over Time?......Page 567
Oxygen concentrations in Earth’s atmosphere have changed over time......Page 569
Earth’s climate has shifted between hot/humid and cold/dry conditions......Page 570
Extraterrestrial events have triggered changes on Earth......Page 571
Several processes contribute to the paucity of fossils......Page 572
Life expanded rapidly during the Cambrian period......Page 573
Many groups of organisms that arose during the Cambrian later diversified......Page 574
Geographic differentiation increased during the Mesozoic era......Page 578
The tree of life is used to reconstruct evolutionary events......Page 579
CHAPTER 26: Bacteria and Archaea: The Prokaryotic Domains......Page 582
The three domains differ in significant ways......Page 583
Prokaryotes generally form complex communities......Page 585
Prokaryotes have distinctive modes of locomotion......Page 587
Prokaryotes can communicate......Page 588
Prokaryotes have amazingly diversemet abolic pathways......Page 589
Lateral gene transfer can lead to discordant gene trees......Page 591
The great majority of prokaryote species have never been studied......Page 592
Spirochetes move by means of axial filaments......Page 593
Cyanobacteria are important photoautotrophs......Page 594
The low-GC Gram-positives include the smallest cellular organisms......Page 595
The proteobacteria are a large and diverse group......Page 596
Archaea differ in several important ways from bacteria......Page 597
Euryarchaeota are found in surprising places......Page 598
Prokaryotes are important players in element cycling......Page 599
A small minority of bacteria are pathogens......Page 600
Many RNA viruses probably represent escaped genomic components......Page 601
Some DNA viruses may have evolved from reduced cellular organisms......Page 603
CHAPTER 27: The Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes......Page 606
Cellular features support the monophyly of eukaryotes......Page 607
The modern eukaryotic cell arose in several steps......Page 610
Chloroplasts are a study in endosymbiosis......Page 611
Protists occupy many different niches......Page 612
Protists employ vacuoles in several ways......Page 613
The cell surfaces of protists are diverse......Page 614
Some protists are endosymbionts......Page 615
Some microbial protists are deadly......Page 616
We continue to rely on the products of ancient marine protists......Page 617
Some protists have reproduction without sex, and sex without reproduction......Page 618
Some protist life cycles feature alternation of generations......Page 619
Chlorophytes provide examples of several life cycles......Page 620
Alveolates have sacs under their plasma membrane......Page 621
Stramenopiles have two unequal flagella, one with hairs......Page 623
Red algae have a distinctive accessory photosynthetic pigment......Page 625
Chlorophytes, charophytes, and land plants contain chlorophylls a and b......Page 626
Euglenids and kinetoplastids have distinctive mitochondria and flagella......Page 627
Radiolarians have thin, stiff pseudopods......Page 628
Amoebozoans use lobe-shaped pseudopods for locomotion......Page 629
CHAPTER 28: Plants without Seeds: From Water to Land......Page 634
There are ten major groups of land plants......Page 635
The land plants arose from a green algal clade......Page 636
Adaptations to life on land distinguish land plants from green algae......Page 637
The sporophytes of nonvascular land plants are dependent on gametophytes......Page 638
Vascular tissues transport water and dissolved materials......Page 640
Vascular plants have been evolving for almost half a billion years......Page 641
Roots may have evolved from branches......Page 642
Heterospory appeared among the vascular plants......Page 643
Liverworts may be the most ancient surviving plant clade......Page 645
Hornworts have distinctive chloroplasts and sporophytes without stalks......Page 646
Some vascular plants have vascular tissue but not seeds......Page 647
Horsetails, whisk ferns, and ferns constitute a clade......Page 648
CHAPTER 29: The Evolution of Plants......Page 653
Features of the seed plant life cycle protect gametes and embryos......Page 654
The seed is a complex, well-protected package......Page 656
A change in anatomy enabled seed plants to grow to great heights......Page 657
29.2: What Are the Major Groups of Gymnosperms?......Page 658
Conifers have cones but no motile gametes......Page 659
29.3: What Features Contributed to the Success of the Angiosperms?......Page 661
Flower structure has evolved over time......Page 662
Angiosperms have coevolved with animals......Page 664
The angiosperm life cycle features double fertilization......Page 665
Recent analyses have revealed the oldest split among the angiosperms......Page 666
Seed plants are our primary food source......Page 668
Seed plants have been sources of medicine since ancient times......Page 669
CHAPTER 30: Fungi: Recyclers, Pathogens, Parasites, and Plant Partners......Page 672
30.1: What Is a Fungus?......Page 673
Unicellular fungi are known as yeasts......Page 674
The body of a multicellular fungus is composed of hyphae......Page 675
Fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually......Page 676
Saprobic fungi are critical to the planetary carbon cycle......Page 677
Fungi may engage in parasitic and predatory interactions......Page 678
Some fungi engage in relationships beneficial to both partners......Page 679
Alternation of generations is seen among some aquatic chytrids......Page 681
30.4: How Have Fungi Evolved and Diversified?......Page 684
Chytrids are the only fungi with flagella......Page 685
The sexual reproductive structure of sac fungi is the ascus......Page 686
The sexual reproductive structure of club fungi is a basidium......Page 688
CHAPTER 31: Animal Origins and the Evolution of Body Plans......Page 691
Animal monophyly is supported by gene sequences and morphology......Page 692
A few basic developmental patterns differentiate major animal groups......Page 694
The structure of the body cavity influences movement......Page 695
Appendages have many uses......Page 696
31.3: How Do Animals Get Their Food?......Page 697
Predators capture and subdue large prey......Page 698
Parasites live in or on other organisms......Page 699
31.4: How Do Life Cycles Differ among Animals?......Page 700
No life cycle can maximize all benefits......Page 701
Colonial organisms are composed of genetically identical, physiologically integrated individuals......Page 702
Sponges are loosely organized animals......Page 704
Ctenophores are radially symmetrical and diploblastic......Page 706
Cnidarians are specialized carnivores......Page 707
CHAPTER 32: Protostome Animals......Page 712
32.1: What Is a Protostome?......Page 713
Cilia-bearing lophophores and trochophores evolved among the lophotrochozoans......Page 714
Ecdysozoans must shed their cuticles......Page 715
Arrow worms retain some ancestral developmental features......Page 716
Bryozoans live in colonies......Page 717
Flatworms and rotifers are structurally diverse relatives......Page 718
Ribbon worms have a long, protrusible feeding organ......Page 719
Annelids have segmented bodies......Page 720
Mollusks have undergone a dramatic evolutionary radiation......Page 722
Several marine groups have relatively few species......Page 725
Nematodes and their relatives area bundant and diverse......Page 726
32.4: Why Are Arthropods So Diverse?......Page 727
Jointed appendages first appeared in the trilobites......Page 728
Most chelicerates have four pairs of legs......Page 729
Crustaceans are diverse and abundant......Page 730
Insects are the dominant terrestrial arthropods......Page 732
An Overview of Protostome Evolution......Page 735
CHAPTER 33: Deuterostome Animals......Page 738
33.1: What Is a Deuterostome?......Page 739
33.2: What Are the Major Groups of Echinoderms and Hemichordates?......Page 740
Echinoderms have unique structural features......Page 741
33.3: What New Features Evolved in the Chordates?......Page 743
Adults of most cephalochordates and urochordates are sessile......Page 744
A dorsal supporting structure replaces the notochord in vertebrates......Page 745
The vertebrate body plan can support large, active animals......Page 746
Fins and swim bladders improved stability and control over locomotion......Page 747
Jointed fins enhanced support for fishes......Page 749
Amphibians adapted to life on land......Page 750
Amniotes colonized dry environments......Page 752
Reptiles adapted to life in many habitats......Page 753
The evolution of feathers allowed birds to fly......Page 754
Mammals radiated after the extinction of dinosaurs......Page 755
Most mammals are therians......Page 756
33.5: What Traits Characterize the Primates?......Page 759
Human ancestors evolved bipedal locomotion......Page 761
Humans developed complex language and culture......Page 762
CHAPTER 34: The Plant Body......Page 765
34.1: What Is the Basic Body Plan of Plants?......Page 766
The root system anchors the plant and takes up water and dissolved minerals......Page 767
Leaves are the primary sites of photosynthesis......Page 768
The structure of cell walls allows plants to grow......Page 769
34.3: How Do Plant Tissues and Organs Originate?......Page 771
The plant body is constructed from three tissue systems......Page 772
Plants increase in size through primary and secondary growth......Page 774
Ahierarchy of meristems generates the plant body......Page 775
The products of the root’s primary meristems become root tissues......Page 776
The products of the stem’s primary meristems become stem tissues......Page 777
Leaves are determinate organs produced by shoot apical meristems......Page 778
Many eudicot stems and roots undergo secondary growth......Page 779
34.5: How Has Domestication Altered Plant Form?......Page 781
CHAPTER 35: Transport in Plants......Page 785
Water potential differences govern the direction of water movement......Page 786
Uptake of mineral ions requires membrane transport proteins......Page 788
Water and ions pass to the xylem by way of the apoplast and symplast......Page 789
Root pressure alone does not account for xylem transport......Page 791
The transpiration–cohesion–tension mechanism accounts for xylem transport......Page 792
Apressure chamber measures tension in the xylem sap......Page 793
The guard cells control the size of the stomatal opening......Page 794
35.4: How Are Substances Trans located in the Phloem?......Page 796
The pressure flow model appears to account for translocation in the phloem......Page 797
The pressure flow model has been experimentally tested......Page 798
CHAPTER 36: Plant Nutrition......Page 801
How does a stationary organism find nutrients?......Page 802
Deficiency symptoms reveal inadequate nutrition......Page 803
Hydroponic experiments identified essential elements......Page 804
36.3: How Does Soil Structure Affect Plants?......Page 805
Soils form through the weathering of rock......Page 806
Plants affect soil fertility and pH......Page 807
Soil bacteria are essential in getting nitrogen from air to plant cells......Page 808
Nitrogenase catalyzes nitrogen fixation......Page 809
Some plants and bacteria work together to fix nitrogen......Page 810
Legumes and rhizobia communicate using chemical signals......Page 811
Plants and bacteria participate in the global nitrogen cycle......Page 812
Parasitic plants take advantage of other plants......Page 813
The plant–parasite relationship is similar to plant–fungi and plant–bacteria associations......Page 814
CHAPTER 37: Regulation of Plant......Page 817
37.1: How Does Plant Development Proceed?......Page 818
Environment cues can initiate seed germination......Page 819
Several hormones and photoreceptors help regulate plant growth......Page 820
Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana have increased our understanding of plant signal transduction......Page 821
37.2: What Do Gibberellins Do?......Page 822
Gibberellins have many effects on plant growth and development......Page 823
Gibberellins act by initiating the breakdown of transcriptional repressors......Page 824
37.3: What Does Auxin Do?......Page 825
Auxin transport mediates responses to light and gravity......Page 827
Auxin affects plant growth in several ways......Page 828
Cytokinins are active from seed to senescence......Page 830
Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones......Page 832
Phototropins, cryptochromes, and zeaxanthin are blue-light receptors......Page 834
Phytochromes mediate the effects of red and far-red light......Page 835
Circadian rhythms are entrained by light reception......Page 836
CHAPTER 38: Reproduction in Flowering Plants......Page 840
The flower is an angiosperm’s structure for sexual reproduction......Page 841
Flowering plants have microscopic gametophytes......Page 842
Flowering plants prevent inbreeding......Page 844
Angiosperms perform double fertilization......Page 845
Embryos develop within seeds......Page 846
Fruits assist in seed dispersal......Page 847
38.2: What Determines the Transition from the Vegetative to the Flowering State?......Page 848
Acascade of gene expression leads to flowering......Page 849
The length of the night is the key photoperiodic cue determining flowering......Page 850
The flowering stimulus originates in a leaf......Page 851
Florigen is a small protein......Page 853
Some plants do not require an environmental cue to flower......Page 854
Many forms of asexual reproduction exist......Page 855
Vegetative reproduction is important in agriculture......Page 856
CHAPTER 39: Plant Responses to Environmental Challenges......Page 860
Mechanical defenses include physical barriers......Page 861
Plants can seal off infected parts to limit damage......Page 862
Receptor–elicitor binding evokes the hypersensitive response......Page 863
Plants develop specific immunity to RNA viruses......Page 864
Mechanical defenses against herbivores are widespread......Page 865
Plants produce chemical defenses against herbivores......Page 866
Plants respond to herbivory with induced defenses......Page 867
Why don’t plants poison themselves?......Page 868
Desert plants have special adaptations to dry conditions......Page 869
In water-saturated soils, oxygen is scarce......Page 871
Plants have ways of coping with temperature extremes......Page 872
Some plants can tolerate heavy metals......Page 874
CHAPTER 40: Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation......Page 878
An internal environment makes complex multicellular animals possible......Page 879
Physiological systems maintain homeostasis......Page 880
Cells, tissues, organs, and systems are specialized to serve homeostatic needs......Page 881
Organs consist of multiple tissues......Page 883
Q10 is a measure of temperature sensitivity......Page 884
Endotherms produce heat metabolically......Page 885
Ectotherms and endotherms respond differently to changes in temperature......Page 886
Energy budgets reflect adaptations for regulating body temperature......Page 887
Both ectotherms and endotherms control blood flow to the skin......Page 888
Some ectotherms regulate heat production......Page 889
Basal metabolic rates are correlated with body size and environmental temperature......Page 890
Endotherms respond to cold by producing heat and adapt to cold by reducing heat loss......Page 891
The mammalian thermostat uses feedback information......Page 892
Turning down the thermostat......Page 893
CHAPTER 41: Animal Hormones......Page 897
41.1: What Are Hormones and How Do They Work?......Page 898
Hormonal communication has a long evolutionary history......Page 899
Hormone receptors can be membrane bound or intracellular......Page 902
Hormone action depends on the nature of the target cell and its receptors......Page 903
The pituitary connects the nervous and endocrine systems......Page 904
The anterior pituitary is controlled by hypothalamic neurohormones......Page 906
The thyroid gland secretes thyroxine......Page 907
Three hormones regulate blood calcium concentrations......Page 909
Insulin and glucagon regulate blood glucose concentrations......Page 910
The adrenal gland is two glands in one......Page 911
Sex steroids are produced by the gonads......Page 913
Hormones can be detected and measured with immunoassays......Page 914
A hormone can act through many receptors......Page 915
CHAPTER 42: Immunology: Animal Defense Systems......Page 919
42.1: What Are the Major Defense Systems of Animals?......Page 920
Immune system proteins bind pathogens or signal other cells......Page 921
Barriers and local agents defend the body against invaders......Page 923
Inflammation is a coordinated response to infection or injury......Page 924
Cell signaling pathways stimulate the body’s defenses......Page 925
Adaptive immunity has four key features......Page 926
Two types of specific immune responses interact: an overview......Page 927
Genetic changes and clonal selection generate the specific immune response......Page 928
Vaccines are an application of immunological memory......Page 929
Animals distinguish self from nonself and tolerate their own antigens......Page 930
Different antibodies share a common structure......Page 931
Monoclonal antibodies have many uses......Page 932
42.5: What Is the Cellular Immune Response?......Page 933
MHC proteins present antigen to T cells......Page 934
Regulatory T cells suppress the humoral and cellular immune responses......Page 935
42.6: How Do Animals Make So Many Different Antibodies?......Page 937
Antibody diversity results from DNA rearrangement and other mutations......Page 938
The constant region is involved in immunoglobulin class switching......Page 939
Allergic reactions result from hypersensitivity......Page 940
AIDS is an immune deficiency disorder......Page 941
CHAPTER 43: Animal Reproduction......Page 945
Budding and regeneration produce new individuals by mitosis......Page 946
Parthenogenesis is the development of unfertilized eggs......Page 947
Gametogenesis produces eggs and sperm......Page 948
Fertilization is the union of sperm and egg......Page 951
Getting eggs and sperm together......Page 952
The evolution of vertebrate reproductive systems parallels the move to land......Page 953
Animals with internal fertilization are distinguished by where the embryo develops......Page 954
Male sex organs produce and deliverse men......Page 955
Male sexual function is controlled by hormones......Page 957
Female sex organs produce eggs, receive sperm, and nurture the embryo......Page 958
The uterine cycle prepares an environment for the fertilized egg......Page 959
Hormones control and coordinate the ovarian and uterine cycles......Page 960
In pregnancy, hormones from the extraembryonic membranes take over......Page 961
Human sexual responses have four phases......Page 962
Humans use a variety of methods to control fertility......Page 963
Reproductive technologies help solve problems of infertility......Page 965
CHAPTER 44: Animal Development......Page 968
The sperm and the egg make different contributions to the zygote......Page 969
Rearrangements of egg cytoplasm set the stage for determination......Page 970
Cleavage repackages the cytoplasm......Page 971
Early cell divisions in mammals are unique......Page 972
Specific blastomeres generate specifict issues and organs......Page 973
Invagination of the vegetal pole characterizes gastrulation in the sea urchin......Page 974
Gastrulation in the frog begins at the gray crescent......Page 975
The dorsal lip of the blastopore organizes embryo formation......Page 976
Transcription factors underlie the organizer’s actions......Page 977
The organizer changes its activity as it migrates from the dorsal lip......Page 978
Reptilian and avian gastrulation is an adaptation to yolky eggs......Page 979
Placental mammals retain the avian–reptilian gastrulation pattern but lack yolk......Page 980
Body segmentation develops during neurulation......Page 981
Hox genes control development along the anterior–posterior axis......Page 982
Extraembryonic membranes form with contributions from all germ layers......Page 983
Extraembryonic membranes in mammals form the placenta......Page 984
Organ systems grow and mature during the second and third trimesters......Page 985
Developmental changes continue throughout life......Page 986
CHAPTER 45: Neurons and Nervous Systems......Page 989
Neural networks range in complexity......Page 990
Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems......Page 991
Glia are also important components of nervous systems......Page 993
Ion transporters and channels generate membrane potentials......Page 994
Ion channels and their properties can now be studied directly......Page 997
Graded changes in membrane potential can integrate information......Page 998
Sudden changes in Na+ and K+ channels generate action potentials......Page 999
Action potentials can jump along axons......Page 1001
The arrival of an action potential causes the release of neurotransmitter......Page 1002
The postsynaptic membrane responds to neurotransmitter......Page 1003
Synapses can be fast or slow......Page 1004
The action of a neurotransmitter depends on the receptor to which it binds......Page 1005
To turn off responses, synapses must be cleared of neurotransmitter......Page 1006
The diversity of receptors makes drug specificity possible......Page 1007
CHAPTER 46: Sensory Systems......Page 1010
Sensory receptor proteins act on ion channels......Page 1011
Sensory transduction involves changes in membrane potentials......Page 1012
46.2: How Do Sensory Systems Detect Chemical Stimuli?......Page 1013
Olfaction is the sense of smell......Page 1014
Gustation is the sense of taste......Page 1015
Many different cells respond to touch and pressure......Page 1016
Mechanoreceptors are found in muscles, tendons, and ligaments......Page 1017
Auditory systems use hair cells to sense sound waves......Page 1018
Hair cells are sensitive to being bent......Page 1020
Hair cells are evolutionarily conserved......Page 1021
Rod cells respond to light......Page 1022
Invertebrates have a variety of visual systems......Page 1024
Image-forming eyes evolved independently in vertebrates and cephalopods......Page 1025
The vertebrate retina receives and processes visual information......Page 1026
CHAPTER 47: The Mammalian Nervous System: Structure and Higher Function......Page 1031
The vertebrate CNS develops from the embryonic neural tube......Page 1032
The spinal cord transmits and processes information......Page 1034
The core of the forebrain controls physiological drives, instincts, and emotions......Page 1035
Regions of the telencephalon interact to produce consciousness and control behavior......Page 1036
The human brain is off the curve......Page 1038
The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary physiological functions......Page 1039
Patterns of light falling on the retina are integrated by the visual cortex......Page 1040
Cortical cells receive input from both eyes......Page 1043
47.3: Can Higher Functions Be Understood in Cellular Terms?......Page 1044
Sleep and dreaming are reflected in electrical patterns in the cerebral cortex......Page 1045
Some learning and memory can be localized to specific brain areas......Page 1046
We still cannot answer the question “What is consciousness?”......Page 1048
CHAPTER 48: Musculoskeletal Systems......Page 1052
Sliding filaments cause skeletal muscle to contract......Page 1053
Actin–myosin interactions cause filaments to slide......Page 1055
Actin–myosin interactions are controlled by calcium ions......Page 1056
Smooth muscle causes slow contractions of many internal organs......Page 1058
Single skeletal muscle twitches are summed into graded contractions......Page 1060
Muscle fiber types determine endurance and strength......Page 1061
A muscle has an optimal length for generating maximum tension......Page 1062
Muscle ATP supply limits performance......Page 1063
A hydrostatic skeleton consists of fluidin a muscular cavity......Page 1064
Vertebrate endoskeletons consist of cartilage and bone......Page 1065
Bones develop from connective tissues......Page 1066
Bones that have a common joint can work as a lever......Page 1067
CHAPTER 49: Gas Exchange in Animals......Page 1071
Diffusion is driven by concentration differences......Page 1072
Air is a better respiratory medium than water......Page 1073
CO2 is lost by diffusion......Page 1074
Insects have airways throughout their bodies......Page 1075
Fish gills use countercurrent flow to maximize gas exchange......Page 1076
Birds use unidirectional ventilation to maximize gas exchange......Page 1077
Tidal ventilation produces dead space that limits gas exchange efficiency......Page 1078
Lungs are ventilated by pressure changes in the thoracic cavity......Page 1081
Hemoglobin combines reversibly with O2......Page 1083
Hemoglobin’s affinity for O2 is variable......Page 1084
CO2 is transported as bicarbonate ions in the blood......Page 1085
Breathing is controlled in the brainstem......Page 1086
Regulating breathing requires feedback information......Page 1087
CHAPTER 50: Circulatory Systems......Page 1091
Circulatory systems can be open or closed......Page 1092
Closed circulatory systems circulate blood through a system of blood vessels......Page 1093
Fishes have a two-chambered heart......Page 1094
Reptiles have exquisite control of pulmonary and systemic circulation......Page 1095
Birds and mammals have fully separated pulmonary and systemic circuits......Page 1096
Blood flows from right heart to lungs to left heart to body......Page 1097
The heartbeat originates in the cardiac muscle......Page 1099
Electrical properties of ventricular muscles sustain heart contraction......Page 1100
The ECG records the electrical activity of the heart......Page 1101
Red blood cells transport respiratory gases......Page 1102
Platelets are essential for blood clotting......Page 1103
Materials are exchanged in capillary beds by filtration, osmosis, and diffusion......Page 1104
Blood flows back to the heart through veins......Page 1106
Vascular disease is a killer......Page 1107
Autoregulation matches local blood flow to local need......Page 1108
Arterial pressure is regulated by hormonal and neural mechanisms......Page 1109
CHAPTER 51: Nutrition, Digestion, and Absorption......Page 1113
Energy needs and expenditures can be measured......Page 1114
Food provides carbon skeletons for biosynthesis......Page 1116
Animals need mineral elements for a variety of functions......Page 1117
Animals must obtain vitamins from food......Page 1118
Nutrient deficiencies result in diseases......Page 1119
Vertebrate species have distinctive teeth......Page 1120
Tubular guts have an opening at each end......Page 1121
Digestive enzymes break down complex food molecules......Page 1122
The vertebrate gut consists of concentric tissue layers......Page 1123
Mechanical activity moves food through the gut and aids digestion......Page 1124
Stomach ulcers can be caused by a bacterium......Page 1125
The stomach gradually releases its contents to the small intestine......Page 1126
Most chemical digestion occurs in the small intestine......Page 1127
Nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine......Page 1128
Herbivores rely on microorganisms to digest cellulose......Page 1129
51.4: How Is the Flow of Nutrients Controlled and Regulated?......Page 1130
The liver directs the traffic of the molecules that fuel metabolism......Page 1131
Regulating food intake is important......Page 1133
CHAPTER 52: Salt and Water Balance and Nitrogen Excretion......Page 1137
Water enters or leaves cells by osmosis......Page 1138
Animals can be ionic conformers orionic regulators......Page 1139
Animals excrete nitrogen in a number of forms......Page 1140
The protonephridia of flat worms excrete water and conserve salts......Page 1141
The metanephridia of annelids process coelomic fluid......Page 1142
52.4: How Do Vertebrates Maintain Salt and Water Balance?......Page 1143
The nephron is the functional unit of the vertebrate kidney......Page 1144
Blood is filtered into Bowman’s capsule......Page 1145
Nephrons have a regular arrangement in the kidney......Page 1146
Most of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule......Page 1147
The loop of Henle creates a concentration gradient in the renal medulla......Page 1148
Water permeability of kidney tubules depends on water channels......Page 1149
The kidneys help regulate acid–base balance......Page 1150
Kidney failure is treated with dialysis......Page 1151
Blood osmolarity and blood pressure are regulated by ADH......Page 1153
The heart produces a hormone that helps lower blood pressure......Page 1155
CHAPTER 53: Animal Behavior......Page 1159
Conditioning was the focus of behaviorists......Page 1160
Fixed action patterns were the focus of ethologists......Page 1161
Ethologists probed the causes of behavior......Page 1162
Knockout experiments can reveal the roles of specific genes......Page 1163
Behaviors are controlled by gene cascades......Page 1164
Hormones can determine behavioral potential and timing......Page 1165
Some behaviors can be acquired only at certain times......Page 1166
Bird song learning involves genetics,i mprinting, and hormonal timing......Page 1167
The timing and expression of bird song are under hormonal control......Page 1168
Behaviors have costs and benefits......Page 1169
Cost–benefit analysis can be applied to foraging behavior......Page 1171
Biological rhythms coordinate behavior with environmental cycles......Page 1173
Animals must find their way around their environment......Page 1175
Animals use multiple modalities to communicate......Page 1177
53.6: How Does Social Behavior Evolve?......Page 1179
Mating systems maximize the fitness of both partners......Page 1180
Fitness can include more than producing offspring......Page 1181
Eusociality is the extreme result of kin selection......Page 1182
Group living has benefits and costs......Page 1183
CHAPTER 54: Ecology and the Distribution of Life......Page 1186
Ecology is not the same as environmentalism......Page 1187
Solar energy input determines atmospheric circulation patterns......Page 1188
Global oceanic circulation is driven by wind patterns......Page 1189
Organisms adapt to climatic challenges......Page 1190
54.3: What Is a Biome?......Page 1192
Tundra is found at high latitudes and high elevations......Page 1193
Evergreen trees dominate boreal forests......Page 1194
Temperate deciduous forests change with the seasons......Page 1195
Temperate grasslands are widespread......Page 1196
Hot deserts form around 30° latitude......Page 1197
Cold deserts are high and dry......Page 1198
Chaparral has hot, dry summers and wet, cool winters......Page 1199
Thorn forests and tropical savannas have similar climates......Page 1200
Tropical deciduous forests occur in hot lowlands......Page 1201
Tropical evergreen forests are rich in species......Page 1202
Geological history influenced the distribution of organisms......Page 1203
Two scientific advances changed the field of biogeography......Page 1205
Biotic interchange follows fusion of land masses......Page 1206
Vicariant events influence distribution patterns......Page 1207
Humans exert a powerful influence on biogeographic patterns......Page 1208
The oceans can be divided into several life zones......Page 1209
Estuaries have characteristics of both freshwater and marine environments......Page 1210
CHAPTER 55: Population Ecology......Page 1213
Ecologists use a variety of approaches to count and track individuals......Page 1214
Populations have age structures and dispersion patterns......Page 1215
Life tables track demographic events......Page 1217
Life history traits vary with environmental conditions......Page 1219
All populations have the potential for exponential growth......Page 1220
Logistic growth occurs as a population approaches its carrying capacity......Page 1221
Several factors explain why some species achieve higher population densities than others......Page 1222
Many populations live in separated habitat patches......Page 1224
Corridors allow subpopulations to persist......Page 1225
Population management plans must be guided by the principles of population dynamics......Page 1226
Human population increase has been exponential......Page 1227
CHAPTER 56: Species Interaction and Coevolution......Page 1231
Interactions among species can be grouped into several categories......Page 1232
56.2: How Do Antagonistic Interactions Evolve?......Page 1234
Predator–prey interactions result in a range of adaptations......Page 1235
Herbivory is a widespread interaction......Page 1236
Microparasite–host interactions may be pathogenic......Page 1238
Most ectoparasites have adaptations for holding onto their hosts......Page 1239
Plants and pollinators exchange food for pollen transport......Page 1240
Some mutualistic partners exchangef ood or housing for defense......Page 1242
Exploitation competition may lead to coexistence......Page 1244
Competition may determine a species ’niche......Page 1245
CHAPTER 57: Community Ecology......Page 1249
Energy enters communities through primary producers......Page 1250
Consumers use diverse sources of energy......Page 1251
Productivity and species richness are linked......Page 1252
Species interactions can cause trophic cascades......Page 1254
Keystone species have wide-ranging effects......Page 1255
A community’s diversity can be measured with a diversity index......Page 1256
Latitudinal gradients in diversity are observed in both hemispheres......Page 1257
The theory of island biogeography suggests that species richness reaches an equilibrium......Page 1258
Succession is the predictable pattern of change in a community after a disturbance......Page 1260
Both facilitation and inhibition influence succession......Page 1261
Heterotrophic succession generates distinctive communities......Page 1262
Species-rich communities use resources more efficiently......Page 1263
Diversity, productivity, and stability differ between natural and managed communities......Page 1264
CHAPTER 58: Ecosystems and Global Ecology......Page 1267
Energy flows and materials cycle through ecosystems......Page 1268
The atmosphere regulates temperatures close to Earth’s surface......Page 1269
The oceans receive materials from the other compartments......Page 1270
Water moves rapidly through lakes and streams......Page 1271
Land covers about a quarter of Earth’s surface......Page 1272
The geographic distribution of energy flow is uneven......Page 1273
Human activities modify the flow of energy......Page 1274
Water transfers materials from one compartment to another......Page 1275
The carbon cycle has been altered by human activities......Page 1276
Recent perturbations of the nitrogen cycle have had adverse effects on ecosystems......Page 1278
The burning of fossil fuels affects the sulfur cycle......Page 1280
The global phosphorus cycle lacks a significant atmospheric component......Page 1281
Biogeochemical cycles interact......Page 1282
58.4: What Services Do Ecosystems Provide?......Page 1283
58.5: How Can Ecosystems Be Sustainably Managed?......Page 1284
CHAPTER 59: Conservation Biology......Page 1288
Conservation biology aims to protect and manage biodiversity......Page 1289
Biodiversity has great value to human society......Page 1290
Our knowledge of biodiversity is incomplete......Page 1291
We can predict the effects of human activities on biodiversity......Page 1292
Species are endangered by the degradation, destruction, and fragmentation of their habitats......Page 1293
Overexploitation has driven many species to extinction......Page 1294
Rapid climate change can cause species extinctions......Page 1295
Protected areas preserve habitat and prevent overexploitation......Page 1297
Degraded ecosystems can be restored......Page 1298
Disturbance patterns sometimes need to be restored......Page 1299
Invasions of exotic species must be controlled or prevented......Page 1300
Biodiversity can have market value......Page 1301
Simple changes can help protect biodiversity......Page 1302
The legacy of Samuel Plimsoll......Page 1303
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Appendix B: Some Measurements Used in Biology......Page 1313
Answers to Self-Quizzes......Page 1315
A......Page 1317
B......Page 1319
C......Page 1320
D......Page 1324
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Illustration Credits......Page 1349
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I......Page 1373
L......Page 1374
M......Page 1376
N......Page 1378
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R......Page 1385
S......Page 1386
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