دانلود کتاب General, Organic and Biological Chemistry: An Integrated Approach, Second Edition

عنوان فارسی :

دانلود کتاب شیمی عمومی، شیمی آلی و زیستی: رویکرد مجتمع، ویرایش دوم

عنوان انگلیسی :

General, Organic and Biological Chemistry: An Integrated Approach, Second Edition

زبان : English

موضوع : Biology->Biochemistry

نویسندگان : Kenneth W. Raymond

ناشر : Wiley

ISBN (شابک) : 0470129271, 9780470129272

تعداد صفحات : 654\654

سال نشر : 2007     ویرایش : Second Edition

حجم : 31 MB       فرمت : pdf

قیمت : 4000 تومان

فهرست :



Table of contents :
Contents......Page 21
CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE AND MEASUREMENTS......Page 29
1.1 The Scientific Method......Page 30
1.2 Matter and Energy......Page 32
1.3 Units of Measurement......Page 34
1.4 Scientific Notation and Metric Prefixes......Page 37
1.5 Measurements and Significant Figures......Page 39
HEALTH Link: Body Mass Index......Page 41
1.6 Conversion Factors and the Factor Label Method......Page 43
HEALTH Link: Body Temperature......Page 44
CHAPTER 2 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS......Page 55
2.1 Atoms......Page 56
2.2 Elements......Page 57
HEALTH Link: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)......Page 59
2.3 Atomic Number and Mass Number......Page 60
2.4 Periodic Table......Page 62
2.5 The Mole......Page 65
2.6 Radioactive Isotopes......Page 68
2.7 Radioisotopes in Medicine......Page 71
HEALTH Link: CT and MRI Imaging......Page 77
2.8 Fission and Fusion......Page 78
CHAPTER 3 COMPOUNDS......Page 89
3.1 Ions......Page 90
3.2 The Arrangement of Electrons......Page 93
BIOCHEMISTRY Link: Bioluminescence......Page 98
3.3 The Octet Rule......Page 99
BIOCHEMISTRY Link: Ionophores and Biological Ion Transport......Page 101
3.4 Ionic Compounds......Page 102
3.5 Covalent Bonds......Page 105
3.6 Molecules......Page 106
HEALTH Link: Dental Fillings......Page 108
3.7 Formula Weight, Molecular Weight, and Molar Mass......Page 109
BIOCHEMISTRY Link: Ethylene, a Plant Hormone......Page 112
CHAPTER 4 AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC COMPOUNDS......Page 121
4.1 Structural Formulas and Formal Charges......Page 122
4.2 Polar Covalent Bonds, Shape, and Polarity......Page 131
4.3 Noncovalent Interactions......Page 136
4.4 Alkanes......Page 138
4.5 Constitutional Isomers......Page 143
4.6 Conformations......Page 145
4.7 Cycloalkanes......Page 146
4.8 Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds......Page 148
HEALTH Link: Sunscreens......Page 152
4.9 Alcohols, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters......Page 153
BIOCHEMISTRY Link: Odor and Flavor......Page 156
CHAPTER 5 GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLIDS......Page 167
5.1 States of Matter and Energy......Page 168
5.2 Gases and Pressure......Page 174
5.3 The Gas Laws......Page 178
5.4 Partial Pressure......Page 186
5.5 Liquids......Page 189
HEALTH Link: Making Weight......Page 192
HEALTH Link: Breathing......Page 194
5.6 Solids......Page 195
CHAPTER 6 REACTIONS......Page 205
6.1 Chemical Equations......Page 206
6.2 Reaction Types......Page 210
6.3 Oxidation and Reduction......Page 211
HEALTH Link: Antiseptics and Oxidation......Page 215
6.4 Reactions Involving Water......Page 217
6.5 Mole and Mass Relationships in Reactions......Page 219
6.6 Calculating the Yield of a Reaction......Page 223
6.7 Free Energy and Reaction Rate......Page 226
HEALTH Link: Carbonic Anhydrase......Page 229
CHAPTER 7 SOLUTIONS, COLLOIDS, AND SUSPENSIONS......Page 241
7.1 Solutions......Page 242
7.2 Reactions of Ions in Aqueous Solutions......Page 244
Hard Water......Page 248
7.3 Solubility of Gases in Water......Page 249
HEALTH Link: Hyperbaric Medicine......Page 250
7.5 Biochemical Compounds......Page 252
HEALTH Link: Prodrugs......Page 255
7.6 Concentration......Page 256
7.7 Dilution......Page 264
7.8 Colloids and Suspensions......Page 265
HEALTH Link: Saliva......Page 267
7.9 Diffusion and Osmosis......Page 268
HEALTH Link: Diffusion and the Kidneys......Page 270
CHAPTER 8 LIPIDS AND MEMBRANES......Page 281
8.1 Fatty Acids......Page 282
HEALTH Link: Omega-3 fatty acids......Page 285
8.2 Waxes......Page 286
8.3 Triglycerides......Page 287
HEALTH Link: Trans Fats......Page 293
8.4 Phospholipids and Glycolipids......Page 294
8.5 Steroids......Page 298
8.6 Eicosanoids......Page 300
8.7 Membranes......Page 303
CHAPTER 9 ACIDS, BASES, AND EQUILIBRIUM......Page 315
9.1 Acids and Bases......Page 316
9.2 Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases......Page 317
9.3 Equilibrium......Page 318
9.4 Le Châtelier’s Principle......Page 321
BIOCHEMISTRY Link: Diving Mammals, Oxygen, and Myoglobin......Page 323
9.5 Ionization of Water......Page 324
9.6 The pH Scale......Page 325
Math Support–Logs and Antilogs......Page 328
9.7 Acid and Base Strength......Page 329
9.8 Neutralizing Acids and Bases......Page 331
9.9 Effect of pH On Acid and Conjugate Base Concentrations......Page 333
9.10 Buffers......Page 334
9.11 Maintaining the pH of Blood Serum......Page 336
CHAPTER 10 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, PHENOLS, AND AMINES......Page 349
10.1 Carboxylic Acids......Page 351
10.2 Phenols......Page 352
HEALTH Link: A Chili Pepper Painkiller......Page 353
10.3 Carboxylic Acids and Phenols As Weak Organic Acids......Page 354
10.4 Other Reactions of Carboxylic Acids......Page 357
10.5 Oxidation of Phenols......Page 360
10.6 Amines......Page 361
10.7 Amines As Weak Organic Bases......Page 364
10.8 Amides......Page 365
HEALTH Link: Biofilms......Page 367
BIOCHEMISTRY Link: A Cure for Fleas......Page 368
10.9 Stereoisomers......Page 369
HEALTH Link: Adrenaline and Related Compounds......Page 374
CHAPTER 11 ALCOHOLS, ETHERS, ALDEHYDES, AND KETONES......Page 389
11.1 Alcohols, Ethers, and Related Compounds......Page 391
11.2 Preparation......Page 395
11.3 Reactions......Page 398
11.4 Aldehydes and Ketones......Page 401
11.5 Oxidation of Aldehydes......Page 402
11.6 Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones......Page 404
HEALTH Link: Protective Enzymes......Page 406
11.7 Reactions of Alcohols with Aldehydes and Ketones......Page 407
HEALTH Link: Drugs in the Environment......Page 410
CHAPTER 12 CARBOHYDRATES......Page 425
12.1 Monosaccharides......Page 426
12.2 Reactions of Monosaccharides......Page 432
12.3 Monosaccharides in Their Cyclic Form......Page 434
12.4 Oligosaccharides......Page 438
HEALTH Link: Relative Sweetness......Page 443
HEALTH Link: Indigestible Oligosaccharides......Page 445
12.5 Polysaccharides......Page 446
HEALTH Link: Blood Type......Page 450
CHAPTER 13 PEPTIDES, PROTEINS, AND ENZYMES......Page 461
13.1 Amino Acids......Page 462
13.2 The Peptide Bond......Page 465
13.3 Peptides, Proteins, and pH......Page 468
13.4 Protein Structure......Page 469
BIOCHEMISTRY Link: Collagen and a-Keratin, Two Fibrous Proteins......Page 475
BIOCHEMISTRY Link: Hemoglobin, a Globular Protein......Page 476
13.6 Enzymes......Page 477
13.7 Control of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions......Page 481
HEALTH Link: Proteins in Medicine......Page 487
CHAPTER 14 NUCLEIC ACIDS......Page 497
14.1 Nucleic Acid Building Blocks......Page 498
14.2 Nucleoside di-and Triphosphates, Cyclic Nucleotides......Page 503
14.3 Polynucleotides......Page 504
14.4 DNA Structure......Page 505
14.5 Denaturation......Page 508
14.6 Nucleic Acids and Information Flow......Page 509
14.7 DNA Replication......Page 510
14.8 RNA......Page 512
14.9 Translation......Page 515
14.10 Control of Gene Expression......Page 517
14.11 Mutation......Page 519
14.12 Recombinant DNA......Page 520
BIOCHEMISTRY Link: DNA Fingerprinting......Page 522
CHAPTER 15 METABOLISM......Page 533
15.1 Metabolic Pathways, Energy, and Coupled Reactions......Page 534
15.2 Overview of Metabolism......Page 535
15.3 Digestion......Page 540
15.4 Glycolysis......Page 542
15.5 Gluconeogenesis......Page 547
15.6 Glycogen Metabolism......Page 549
15.7 Citric Acid Cycle......Page 550
15.8 Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation......Page 552
HEALTH Link: Brown Fat......Page 555
15.9 Lipid Metabolism......Page 556
15.10 Amino Acid Metabolism......Page 560
Appendix A: Scientific Calculators......Page 571
Appendix B: Important Families of Organic Compounds......Page 575
Appendix C: Naming Ions, Ionic Compounds, Binary Molecules, and Organic Compound......Page 578
Appendix D: Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems......Page 593
Appendix E: Glossary......Page 621
Index......Page 639




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