Ecology: Global Insights and Investigations

دانلود کتاب Ecology: Global Insights and Investigations

عنوان فارسی :

دانلود کتاب محیط زیست: بینش و تحقیقات جهانی

عنوان انگلیسی :

زبان : English

موضوع : Biology->Ecology

نویسندگان : Peter Stiling

ناشر : New York: McGraw-Hill

ISBN (شابک) : 0073532479, 9780073532479

تعداد صفحات : 659\659

سال نشر : 2012     ویرایش : 1

حجم : 114 MB       فرمت : pdf

قیمت : 4000 تومان

خلاصه کتاب به فارسی (ترجمه خودکار و سیستمی) و خارجی:
پیتر استایلینگ، همکار نویسنده زیست شناسی توسط بروکر و همکاران، یک نسخه جدید نسخه جدید زیست شناسی را نوشته است. هدف اصلی در ایجاد یک متن زیست شناسی جدید نشان دادن این است که چگونه محیط زیست در درک تغییرات جهانی مهم است. هدف اصلی این کتاب آموزش مبانی اصول بوم شناسی و ارتباط این اصول با بسیاری از مشکلات زیست محیطی زمین است.

خلاصه کتاب به زبان اصلی :

Peter Stiling, co-author of Biology by Brooker et al., has written a new first edition ecology text. The main goal in creating a new ecology text is to show how ecology is important in understanding global change. The book’s main aim is to teach the basic principles of ecology and to relate these principles to many of the Earth’s ecological problems.

فهرست :



Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Title Page......Page 4
Copyright......Page 5
Contents......Page 16
Preface......Page 8
CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Ecology......Page 26
1.1 Ecology: The Study of Living Interactions......Page 27
1.2.1 Organismal ecology investigates how individuals’ adaptations and choices affect their reproduction and survival......Page 28
1.2.2 Population ecology describes how populations grow and interact with other species......Page 29
1.3 The Four Main Elements of Global Change......Page 30
1.3.1 Element 1: Habitat destruction reduces available habitat for wildlife......Page 31
Feature Investigation: Secretion of Chemicals Gives Some Invasive Plants a Competitive Edge......Page 33
1.3.3 Element 3: Direct exploitation decreases the density of populations......Page 34
1.3.4 Element 4: Pollution may cause global change via climate alterations......Page 35
Global Insight: Biological Control Agents May Have Strong Nontarget Effects......Page 36
1.4 Ecological Methods: Observation, Experimentation, and Analysis......Page 37
1.4.1 Experimentation involves manipulating a system and comparing results to an unmanipulated control......Page 39
1.4.2 Experiments can be performed in a laboratory or in the field, or can result from natural phenomena......Page 40
1.4.3 Meta-analysis allows data from similar experiments to be combined......Page 41
1.4.4 Mathematical models can describe ecological phenomena and predict patterns......Page 42
Test Yourself......Page 43
Data Analysis......Page 44
SECTION ONE: Organismal Ecology......Page 45
CHAPTER 2 Population Genetics......Page 48
2.1 Evolution Concerns How Species Change over Time......Page 49
2.2 Gene and Chromosome Mutations Cause Novel Phenotypes......Page 54
2.3 The Hardy-Weinberg Equation Describes Allele and Genotype Frequencies in an Equilibrium Population......Page 56
2.4 Small Populations Cause the Loss of Genetic Diversity......Page 58
Test Yourself......Page 64
Conceptual Questions......Page 65
Data Analysis......Page 66
CHAPTER 3 Natural Selection, Speciation, and Extinction......Page 68
3.1 Natural Selection Can Follow One of Four Different Pathways......Page 69
3.2 Speciation Occurs Where Genetically Distinct Groups Separate into Species......Page 73
3.3 Evolution Has Accompanied Geologic Changes on Earth......Page 77
3.4 Many Patterns Exist in the Formation and Extinction of Species......Page 86
3.5 Degree of Endangerment Varies by Taxa, Geographic Location, and Species Characteristics......Page 90
Summary......Page 95
Data Analysis......Page 96
CHAPTER 4 Behavioral Ecology......Page 98
4.1 Altruism: Behavior That Benefi ts Others at Personal Cost......Page 99
4.2 Group Living Has Advantages and Disadvantages......Page 105
4.3 Foraging Behavior: The Search for Food......Page 108
4.4 Mating Systems Range from Monogamous to Polygamous......Page 113
Test Yourself......Page 120
Data Analysis......Page 121
SECTION TWO: Physiological Ecology......Page 123
CHAPTER 5 Temperature......Page 126
5.1 The Effects of Cold Temperatures, Especially Freezing, Are Severe......Page 127
5.2 Hot Temperatures Limit Many Species’ Distributions......Page 131
5.3 The Greenhouse Effect Causes the Earth’s Temperature to Rise......Page 135
Summary......Page 141
Data Analysis......Page 142
Conceptual Questions......Page 143
CHAPTER 6 Water......Page 146
6.1 Water Availability Affects Organismal Abundance......Page 147
6.2 Salt Concentrations in Soil and Water Can Be Critical......Page 151
6.3 Soil and Water pH Affect the Distribution of Organisms......Page 154
Conceptual Questions......Page 159
Data Analysis......Page 160
CHAPTER 7 Nutrients......Page 162
7.1 Soil Development Affects Nutrient Levels......Page 163
7.2 Plant Growth Is Limited by a Variety of Nutrients......Page 165
7.3 Herbivore Populations Are Limited by Plant Nutrient Levels......Page 169
7.4 Light Can Be a Limiting Resource for Plants......Page 170
7.5 Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Availability Limit Organismal Growth and Distributions......Page 172
7.6 Species Distributions Are Often Limited by Multiple Abiotic Factors......Page 173
Conceptual Questions......Page 175
Data Analysis......Page 176
SECTION THREE: Population Ecology......Page 177
CHAPTER 8 Demographic Techniques and Population Patterns......Page 180
8.1 A Variety of Techniques Are Used to Quantify Population Density......Page 181
8.2 Patterns of Spacing May Be Clumped, Uniform, or Random......Page 184
8.3 Fragmented Habitats Affect Spatial Dispersion......Page 186
8.4 Landscape Ecology Concerns the Spatial Arrangement of Habitats and Organisms......Page 188
8.5 Metapopulations Are Separate Populations That Mutually Affect One Another via Dispersal......Page 190
Conceptual Questions......Page 194
CHAPTER 9 Life Tables and Demography......Page 196
9.1 Age Distributions, Life Tables, and Survivorship Curves Summarize Survival Patterns......Page 197
9.2 Age-Specific Fertility Data Can Tell Us When to Expect Population Growth to Occur......Page 205
Summary......Page 207
Conceptual Questions......Page 208
Data Analysis......Page 209
CHAPTER 10 Population Growth......Page 212
10.1 Unlimited Population Growth Leads to J-shaped Population Growth Curves......Page 213
10.2 Limited Resources Lead to S-Shaped Population Growth Curves......Page 220
10.3 Density-Dependent Factors May Limit Population Size......Page 225
10.4 Life History Strategies Incorporate Traits Relating to Survival and Competitive Ability......Page 228
10.5 Human Population Growth......Page 232
Summary......Page 237
Conceptual Questions......Page 238
Data Analysis......Page 239
SECTION FOUR: Species Interactions......Page 241
CHAPTER 11 Competition and Coexistence......Page 244
11.1 Several Different Types of Competition Occur in Nature......Page 245
11.2 The Outcome of Competition Can Vary with Changes in the Biotic and Abiotic Environments......Page 246
11.3 Field Studies Show Interspecific Competition Occurs Frequently......Page 249
11.4 The Winners and Losers of Competitive Interactions May Be Predicted Using Mathematical Models......Page 257
11.5 Species May Coexist If They Do Not Occupy Identical Niches......Page 261
Test Yourself......Page 267
Data Analysis......Page 268
CHAPTER 12 Facilitation......Page 270
12.1 Mutualism Is an Association between Two Species That Benefits Both Species......Page 271
12.2 Commensal Relationships Are Those in Which One Partner Receives a Benefit While the Other Is Unaffected......Page 282
12.3 Facilitation May Be More Common under Conditions of Environmental Stress......Page 284
Test Yourself......Page 286
Conceptual Questions......Page 287
Data Analysis......Page 288
CHAPTER 13 Predation......Page 290
13.1 Animals Have Evolved Many Antipredator Adaptations......Page 291
13.2 Predator-Prey Interactions May Be Modeled by Lotka-Volterra Equations......Page 294
13.3 Introduced Predators Show Strong Effects on Native Prey......Page 297
13.4 Native Prey Show Large Responses to Manipulations of Native Predators......Page 300
13.5 Humans, As Predators, Can Greatly Impact Animal Populations......Page 303
Test Yourself......Page 308
Data Analysis......Page 309
CHAPTER 14 Herbivory......Page 312
14.1 Plants Have a Variety of Defenses Against Herbivores......Page 314
14.2 Herbivores May Overcome Plant Defenses and Impact Plant Populations......Page 321
14.3 How Much Plant Material Do Herbivores Consume?......Page 323
14.4 Plants Can Have Strong Effects on Herbivore Densities......Page 328
Test Yourself......Page 330
Data Analysis......Page 331
CHAPTER 15 Parasitism......Page 334
15.1 Parasites Exhibit a Wide Range of Attributes and Lifestyles......Page 335
15.2 Hosts Have Evolved Many Different Types of Defenses Against Parasites......Page 339
15.3 Parasites Can Cause High Mortality in Host Populations......Page 340
15.4 Host-Parasite Models Are Different from Predator-Prey Models......Page 347
15.5 Parasitism May Be Increased by Climate Change......Page 348
Summary......Page 349
Conceptual Questions......Page 350
Data Analysis......Page 351
CHAPTER 16 Population Regulation......Page 354
16.1 Both Top-Down and Bottom-Up Effects Are Important in Natural Systems......Page 355
16.2 Conceptual Models Suggest Top-Down and Bottom-Up Effects Vary in Importance in Different Environments......Page 359
16.3 Key Factor Analysis and Indispensable Mortality Are Two Techniques Used to Compare the Strengths of Mortality Factors......Page 363
Test Yourself......Page 370
Data Analysis......Page 371
SECTION FIVE: Community Ecology......Page 373
CHAPTER 17 Species Diversity......Page 376
17.1 The Nature of Communities Has Been Debated by Ecologists......Page 377
17.2 A Variety of Indices Have Been Used to Estimate Species Biodiversity......Page 378
17.3 Rank Abundance Diagrams Visually Describe the Distribution of Individuals Among Species in Communities......Page 388
17.4 Community Similarity Is a Measure of How Many Species Are Common Between Communities......Page 392
Summary......Page 393
Data Analysis......Page 394
CHAPTER 18 Species Richness Patterns......Page 396
18.1 The Species-Time Hypothesis Suggests Communities Diversify with Age......Page 398
18.2 The Species-Area Hypothesis Suggests Large Areas Support More Species......Page 400
18.3 The Species-Energy Hypothesis Suggests That Greater Productivity Permits the Existence of More Species......Page 401
18.4 The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis Suggests Species Richness Is Highest in Areas of Intermediate Levels of Disturbance......Page 402
18.5 Natural Enemies Promote Increased Species Richness at Local Levels......Page 403
18.6 Communities in Climatically Similar Habitats May Themselves Be Similar in Species Richness......Page 404
18.7 Habitat Conservation Focuses on Identifying Countries Rich in Species or Habitats......Page 407
Test Yourself......Page 411
Data Analysis......Page 412
CHAPTER 19 Species Richness and Community Services......Page 414
19.1 Five Hypotheses Explain How Species Richness Affects Community Services......Page 416
19.2 Species-Rich Communities Are More Stable Than Species-Poor Communities......Page 422
Summary......Page 432
Data Analysis......Page 433
CHAPTER 20 Succession......Page 436
20.1 Several Mechanisms That Describe Succession Have Been Proposed......Page 437
20.2 Species Richness Often Increases During Succession......Page 444
20.3 Restoration Ecology Is Guided by the Theory of Succession......Page 447
Test Yourself......Page 449
Data Analysis......Page 450
CHAPTER 21 Island Biogeography......Page 452
21.1 The Theory of Island Biogeography Considers Succession on Islands......Page 453
21.2 Nature Reserve Designs Incorporate Principles of Island Biogeography and Landscape Ecology......Page 463
Summary......Page 465
Conceptual Questions......Page 466
Data Analysis......Page 467
SECTION SIX: Biomes......Page 469
CHAPTER 22 Terrestrial Biomes......Page 472
22.1 Variation in Solar Radiation Determines the Climate in Different Areas of the World......Page 473
22.2 Terrestrial Biome Types Are Determined by Climate Patterns......Page 479
Test Yourself......Page 501
Conceptual Questions......Page 502
CHAPTER 23 Marine Biomes......Page 504
23.1 Variations in Ocean Current and Tidal Range......Page 505
23.2 Marine Biomes Are Determined by Water Temperature, Depth, and Wave Action......Page 511
Test Yourself......Page 521
Conceptual Questions......Page 522
CHAPTER 24 Freshwater Biomes......Page 524
24.1 The Properties of Freshwater Vary Dramatically with Temperature......Page 525
24.2 Freshwater Biomes Are Determined by Variations in Temperature, Light Availability, Productivity, and Oxygen Content......Page 529
Summary......Page 537
Conceptual Questions......Page 538
SECTION SEVEN: Ecosystems Ecology......Page 539
CHAPTER 25 Food Webs and Energy Flow......Page 542
25.1 The Main Organisms within Food Chains Are Termed Producers, Primary Consumers, and Secondary Consumers......Page 543
25.2 In Most Food Webs, Chain Lengths Are Short and a Pyramid of Numbers Exists......Page 548
25.3 Within Food Webs Some Species Have Disproportionately Large Effects......Page 553
Summary......Page 557
Conceptual Questions......Page 558
Data Analysis......Page 559
CHAPTER 26 Biomass Production......Page 562
26.1 Production Is Influenced by Water, Temperature, Nutrients and Light Availability......Page 563
26.2 Decomposition Is Increased by High Temperatures, Soil Moisture, and Soil Nutrients......Page 573
26.3 Living Organisms Can Affect Nutrient Availability......Page 579
Test Yourself......Page 582
Data Analysis......Page 583
CHAPTER 27 Biogeochemical Cycles......Page 586
27.2 Phosphorus Cycles Locally Between Geological and Biological Components of Ecosystems......Page 587
27.3 Carbon Cycles Among Biological, Geological, and Atmospheric Pools......Page 591
27.4 The Nitrogen Cycle Is Strongly Influenced by Biological Processes That Transform Nitrogen into Usable Forms......Page 595
27.5 The Sulfur Cycle Is Heavily Influenced by Anthropogenic Effects......Page 597
27.6 The Water Cycle Is Largely a Physical Process of Evaporation and Precipitation......Page 599
Test Yourself......Page 601
Data Analysis......Page 602
Appendix A: Answer Key......Page 604
Glossary......Page 616
References......Page 626
Credits......Page 638
Index......Page 640




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